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Sunday, January 10, 2010

Don Eugenio Maria de Hostos Jan 11,1839- August 11,1903

On January 11, let us remember Don Eugenio Maria de Hostos…Let us use this day as a day for a renewed commitment to the cause of human rights and the struggle for a world of peace with true justice for all.Let us as well remember our brave Kacikes and all the people who today truly walk in their footsteps
Now more than ever we must demonstrate the courage of the ancestors and continue to resist the violation of our basic human rights, the exploitation of earth mother and the denial of our right to self determination....Inaru:)

Muevete Taino antes que te lleve el viento!!!
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Eugenio Maria de Hostos
(January 11, 1839 – August 11, 1903) known as "El Ciudadano de America" (meaning: The Citizen of the Americas), was a Puerto Rican educator, philosopher, intellectual, lawyer, sociologist and independence advocate.

At a young age his family sent him to San Juan, where he received his elementary education in the Liceo de San Juan. In 1852, his family then sent him to Bilbao, Spain, where he graduated from the Institute of Secondary Education (high school).
After he graduated, he enrolled and attended the Central University of Madrid. He studied law, philosophy and letters. As a student there, he became interested in politics. In 1863, he also wrote what is considered his greatest work, "La Peregrinación de Bayoan".

When Spain adopted its new constitution in 1869 and refused to grant Puerto Rico its independence, Hostos left and went to the United States
Hostos arrived in the city of Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic where he settled with his wife, Belinda Otilia de Ayala Quintana (1862-1917), a Cuban national, whom he married in 1877 in Caracas, Venezuela and had five children, his first son Carlos Eugenio was born (1879, Santo Domingo), Luisa Amelia (1881), Bayoan Lautaro (1885), Felipo Luis Duarte (born 1890 in Chile), María Angelina (born 1892 in Chile

Independence advocate

In the U.S. he joined the Cuban Revolutionary Committee and became the editor of a journal called La Revolución. Hostos believed in the creation of an Antillano Confederation between Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Cuba. This idea was embraced by fellow Puerto Ricans Ramón Emeterio Betances and Segundo Ruiz Belvis.

Hostos wanted to promote the independence of Puerto Rico and Cuba and the idea of an Antillean Confederation ("Confederación Antillana"), and he therefore traveled to many countries. Among the countries he went promoting his idea were: the United States, France, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, Cuba and the former Danish colony of St. Thomas which is now part of the United States Virgin Islands

Contributions to Latin America

While in Peru, Hostos helped to develop that country's educational system and spoke against the harsh treatment given to the Chinese who lived there. He stayed in Chile from 1870 to 1873. During his stay there, he taught at the University of Chile and gave a speech titled "The Scientific Education of Women." He proposed in his speech that governments permit women in their colleges. Soon after, Chile allowed women to enter its college educational system. On September 29, 1873, he went to Argentina and proposed a railroad system between Argentina and Chile. His proposal was accepted and the first locomotive was named after him.

Educator

In 1875, Hostos went to the Dominican Republic, where he founded, in Santo Domingo, the first Normal School (Teachers College) and introduced advanced teaching methods, although these had been openly opposed by the local Catholic Church; nonetheless, his response to these criticism was calm and constructive, as many of his writings reveal. In 1876, Hostos traveled to Venezuela and married Belinda Otilia de Ayala. Their maid of honor was renowned Puerto Rican poet Lola Rodríguez de Tió. He returned to the Dominican Republic in 1879 when the first Normal School was finally inaugurated. He was named director and he helped establish a second Normal School in the city of Santiago de los Caballeros.
Hostos returned to the U.S. in 1898 and actively participated in the Puerto Rican and Cuban independence movements; his hopes for Puerto Rico's independence, after the Spanish-American War turned into disappointment when the United States government rejected his proposals and instead converted the island into a U.S. colony.

In 1900, Hostos returned to the Dominican Republic, where he continued to play a major role in reorganizing the educational and railroad systems.
He wrote many essays on social-science topics, such as: psychology, logic, literature, rights and is considered as one of the first systematic sociologists in Latin America. He was also known to be a supporter of women's rights.

On August 11th, 1903, Hostos died in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. He is buried in the National Pantheon located in the colonial district of that city. Per his final wishes, his remains are to stay permanently in the Dominican Republic until the day Boriken is completely independent. Then and only then, does he want to be reinterred in his native homeland. Hostos wrote his own epitaph:
"I wish that they will say: In Puerto Rico a man was born who loved truth, desired justice, and worked for the good of men."

Honors and recognitions
In Boriken there are several monuments dedicated to Hostos:
The Municipality of Mayagüez had inaugurated a cultural center and museum near his birthplace in Río Cañas Arriba ward.
The city of Mayagüez also have named in his honor:
• A High School building inaugurated in 1954
• A Highway (now Avenue) in 1961
• The former El Maní Airport in 1986.
• In 1995, the Eugenio María de Hostos School of Law was established in Mayaguez, Boriken. The Hostos Law School aspires to achieve the development of a legal professional that is also responsive to the needs of his or her communities and embraces Hostos educational philosophy.

In 1970, the City University of New York inaugurated Hostos Community College, located in the the Bronx
There is a Junior High school in Brooklyn, New York named after Hostos named Eugenio Maria De Hostos I.S 318, and a High school named Eugenio Maria De Hostos in Union City, New Jersey.

In 1938, the 8th International Conference of America celebrated in Lima, Peru, posthumously paid tribute to Hostos and declared him "Citizen of the Americas and Teacher of the Youth". Puerto Rico declared his birthday an official holiday. There is a monument honoring Hostos in Spain

Among his written works are the following
• "La Peregrinación de Bayoán" (1863)
• "Las doctrinas y los hombres" (1866)
• "El día de América"
• "Ayacucho" (1870)
• "El cholo" (1870)
• "La educación científica de la mujer" (1873)
• "Lecciones de derecho constitucional. Santo Domingo: Cuna de América" (1887)
• "Geografía evolutiva" (1895)




Indigenous resistance
The brave and Noble Chiefs of our people Kacikes Agüeybaná and Agüeybaná II • Arasibo • Hayuya • Jumacao • Urayoán

19th century activists
Ramón Emeterio Betances • Mariana Bracetti • Mathias Brugman • Roberto Cofresí • José de Diego • Eugenio María de Hostos • Francisco Gonzalo Marín • Rosendo Matienzo Cintrón • Antonio Mattei Lluberas • Francisco Ramírez Medina • Lola Rodríguez de Tió • Manuel Rojas • Juan Rius Rivera • Segundo Ruiz Belvis • Arturo Alfonso Schomburg • Antonio Valero de Bernabe • Manuel Zeno Gandía • Fernando Fernandez • Agustín Stahl
Nationalists
Pedro Albizu Campos • Margot Arce de Vázquez • Julia de Burgos • Blanca Canales • Nemesio Canales • José Coll y Cuchí • Oscar Collazo • Juan Antonio Corretjer • José Ferrer Canales • Carmelo Delgado Delgado • Lolita Lebrón • Luis Llorens Torres • Francisco Matos Paoli • Antonio S. Pedreira • German Rieckehoff • Daniel Santos • Griselio Torresola • Olga Viscal Garriga • Pedro Ortiz Davila • René Marqués • Carlos Vélez Rieckehoff
20th century activists
Antonio R. Barceló • Rubén Berríos • Americo Boschetti • Juan Mari Brás • Marie Haydée Beltrán Torres • Roy Brown • Julia de Burgos • Gilberto Concepción de Gracia • Juan Dalmau • Elizam Escobar • Victor Manuel Gerena • María de Lourdes Santiago • Filiberto Ojeda Ríos • Manuel Rodríguez Orellana • Piri Thomas • Alejandrina Torres • Carlos Alberto Torres • Pedro Pietri • Oscar Rivera • Miguel Poventud

Y todos los que luchan por la libertad, y la justicia porque la lucha sigue
Que Viva La Raza.

Refrences and Resource :Wikipedia,Claridad

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